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System Operation & Components
Computed Tomography, or CT has also been commonly referred to as what?
T/F: The electronic signals sent to the table, gantry and high voltage generator must be converted into an analog waveform.
Where does the Technologist initiate instructional commands?
What does the Scan Controller do?
What type of information can be entered at the CT Console?
Each command is shuttled through the _____________, as it is __________ into the system's machine language.
Where is each command sent to after it is translated into the system's machine language?
What is another name for "Analog" waveform?
The gantry contains some of the most important components of the scanner including...
T/F: The conversion of electronic signal output from the scan controller into analog waveform is carried out by the A-to-D Converter.
The ______________ is necessary to produce the high voltage potential that exists between the cathode and the anode.
The attenuation information measured by the detector elements is converted into ____ electrical signals that must be passed through a/an _________.
After the tiny electrical signals are amplified they are sampled via the _____________.
Computed Tomography, or CT, has been commonly called _______________ _______ ________________ or ______________ in the past.
Where are the instructional commands entered by the technologist?
List five types of information/instructions that are entered at the CT System Console.
What CT System Component translates each command as it is entered into the systems machine language before passing it on to the Scan Controller?
What does the scan controller do?
Which System Components operate using analog waveform?
What is another name for analog waveform?
What CT System Component is responsible for converting the digital signal into an analog form?
What does DAC stand for?
What are the two most notable components located in the gantry?
What CT System Component is necessary to produce the high voltage potential that exists between the cathode and the anode?
What gantry component collects the attenuation information?
What do the detector elements do?
Where is the tiny electrical signal output from the detector elements sent?
In what electrical form does the amplifier output its signal/information?
Where does the analog signal go to after it leaves the amplifier component?
Where does the analog signal go to after it leaves the Sample-and-Hold Component?
Where is the data stored after it leaves the DAC?
In which system component is data calculated into an image?
Where does the calculated image go after it leaves the Array Processor and what for?
When was the 1st CT System commercially introduced for general clinical use?
How many Generations of CT Systems are there?
First Generation CT Systems generated a thin, focused x-ray beam called what?
How many detectors were incorporated in the 1st Generation CT Systems?
What was it called when the Tube/Detector configuration in a 1st Generation Scanner scanned across the patient’s body in a linear path before rotating and repeating?
In a 1st generation scanner, what did you call the series of measurements that was collected as the tube/detector assembly translated across the patient?
What is the 1st generation definition of a Projection?
1st Generation: What happens next after a complete translation from one side of the patient to the other?
How many different projections were needed in a 1st generation system in order to construct and image?
What was the shortest possible scan time per image with a 1st Generation system?
Since 1st generation scanners were so slow, imaging was limited to what part of the body and why?
List four key aspects of 1st generation CT Scanners.
2nd generation CT Systems used an x-ray tube that produced an x-ray beam that had a shape similar to a/an ____________________.
2nd generation systems are referred to as having _________________ Geometry.
2nd generation CT Systems contain a/an _______ of detectors referred to as a/an ___________________.
About how many detectors comprised the detector array in 2nd generation scanners?
What was the purpose of the added detectors (detector array) and the fan beam geometry in the 2nd generation design?
How much faster could a 2nd generation scanner collect the required data compared to a 1st generation scanner?
T/F: In regards to 2nd generation CT Systems, the tube/detector assembly still translated across the patient during the collection of a “projection” of data.
After a “projection” of data is obtained in a 2nd generation CT System, the tube/detector rotates typically ____________ covering an arc of __________ around the patient.
What was the scan time for a single image in a 2nd generation scanner?
What single aspect of 2nd generation scanners led to applications outside the head?
What were the 2 most important features of 2nd generation scanners which quickly made 1st generation systems obsolete?
List the four key aspects of 2nd generation CT Systems.
When were 3rd generation systems first introduced?
Most CT Scanners made today still apply similar technologies as those incorporated in which generation of CT Systems?
3rd generation systems incorporate what type of beam geometry?
The tube/detector array in a 3rd generation system no longer ____________ as in 1st and 2nd generation systems but simply __________ around the patient.
What was the major difference in the configuration between 2nd and 3rd generation CT systems?
Why was the curved detector array contained in 3rd generation CT systems an improvement over 1st and 2nd generation designs?
Most scanners today are based on ___________________ technology.
How many detectors are contained in a 3rd generation system detector array?
The term “scan” slightly changed meaning with the introduction of 3rd generation systems. Why?
What is today’s definition of a “scan”?
How fast can a 3rd generation system acquire the data for one image?
List the four key aspects of a 3rd generation CT system.
Why were 4th generation systems developed?
What is the beam geometry of a 4th generation system?
Describe the detector arrangement in a 4th generation CT system.
What does nutate mean?
T/F: Many more detectors are required in 3rd generation scanners than 4th generation scanners.
T/F: 4th generation systems did not necessarily represent a design which was more advanced than 3rd generation systems or that offered improved clinical benefits.
T/F: 3rd and 4th generation systems use different approaches to achieve similar results.
T/F: Today there are very few scanners that use 4th generation technology.
List the four key aspects of 4th generation CT systems.
T/F: In the early days of 3rd generation systems, the high voltage generator was large and heavy and was safely fastened to the floor in the exam room.
In the days before continuous rotation scanners, what transferred the high voltage from the generator to the x-ray tube?
In the early days of 3rd generation scanners, before the invention of continuous rotation scanners, why was it necessary to stop the gantry frame from rotating at the end of every scan and then reverse the direction of the gantry frame’s rotation for the next scan?
Why were continuous rotation scanners introduced?
Most continuous rotation scanners use ______________ technology.
What is the slip Ring?
Why was slip ring technology such an improvement over existing technology?
What was the single most important advancement that led to the development of helical imaging?
What is another name for helical imaging?
What is another name for conventional scanning?
Did Continuous Rotation and Multi-row Detector scanners come out at about the same time?
What are the only two ways to cover anatomy faster in a helical study with a single row detector scanner?
What does MDCT stand for?
What are other names for MDCT?
What type of architecture do MDCT scanners have?
What are the three things that are transferred by the slip ring?
How many detectors are contained in a single detector array of a 3rd generation system?
List the benefits of MDCT.
What does EBCT stand for?
When was EBCT originally designed?
T/F: EBCT does not use an x-ray tube.
How does EBCT work?
What is the fastest CT on the market?
How long does one “rotation” take on an EBCT scanner?
The speed of EBCT makes it well suited for doing what?
A. Computerized Axial Tomography
C. Neither A or B
D. Both A & B
A. At the Gantry
B. Into the PACS Server
C. From the CT System Console
D. Standing on the patients right side
A. Imaging Parameters
B. Post-processing Techniques
C. Filming and Archiving instructions
D. All of the above
A. gantry, placed
B. host computer, translated
C. ER Doctor, checked
D. Hospital, translated
A. The Scan Controller
B. The A-to-D converter
C. The high voltage generator
D. The D-to-A converter
A. The CT x-ray Tube
B. The Detectors
C. The Scan Controller
D. A & B only
A. digital, filter
B. analog, high voltage generator
C. tiny, amplifier
D. digital, amplifier